Canberra Intensive Care Unit

Our mission is to contribute significantly to collaborative home-grown and multi-centre research


Our Research

The Canberra Hospital ICU has an international reputation for leading and contributing to high quality, patient-centred research which leads to improved patient experiences and outcomes around the world.

We focus on developing and conducting investigator-initiated research, collaborate on many ANZ and international projects and support a number of PhD students. Our ICU is a member of the Australia and New Zealand Intensive Care Society Clinical Trials Group (ANZICS CTG).

With strong links to the Australian National University and the University of Canberra, there are many opportunities to get involved with clinical and basic science research in Canberra ICU.

Our Research Executive committee of nursing, medical and allied health clinicians provides leadership, governance and support for all ICU related research proposals and projects. For more information, please contact the Division of Critical Care, Research and Service Development Unit:

CHARM 2019

As part of Canberra Hospital’s commitment to innovation we host an annual Canberra Health Annual Research Meeting (CHARM).

CHARM aims to showcase and recognise the wide range of health research in the Canberra region. It is a joint venture between ACT Health, The Australian National University Medical School, John Curtin School of Medical Research, Australian Catholic University, The University of Canberra, The Australian Institute of Sport, University of New South Wales, Sports Medicine Australia and is organised by the ACT Health Research Office.

Abstract submissions are now open! Submit your abstract today to be a part of the drive toward optimal health care through quality health research.

Abstracts are invited from students and staff from all disciplines of health and medical research.

Submissions close Monday 6 May.

Current Research

Our Latest Findings

Research Publications

Delaney L, E. L., van Haren F (2019). "The effectiveness of noise interventions in the ICU."

Rai S, R. B., van Haren F, Neeman T, Rajamani A, Sundararajan K, Mitchell I (2019). "Long-term follow-up for Psychological stRess in Intensive CarE (PRICE) survivors: study protocol for a multicentre, prospective observational cohort study in Australian intensive care units." BMJ Open.

van Haren, F., T. Pham, L. Brochard, G. Bellani, J. Laffey, M. Dres, E. Fan, E. C. Goligher, L. Heunks, J. Lynch, H. Wrigge, D. McAuley and U. t. G. i. o. S. A. r. F. I. Large observational study to (2019). "Spontaneous Breathing in Early Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome: Insights From the Large Observational Study to UNderstand the Global Impact of Severe Acute Respiratory FailurE Study." Crit Care Med 47(2): 229-238.

Swan, K. L., T. Keene and B. J. Avard (2018). "A 12-Month Clinical Audit Comparing Point-of-Care Lactate Measurements Tested by Paramedics with In-Hospital Serum Lactate Measurements." Prehosp Disaster Med: 1-7.

Dicks, S. G., K. Ranse, H. Northam, F. M. van Haren and D. P. Boer (2018). "A novel approach to studying co-evolution of understanding and research: Family bereavement and the potential for organ donation as a case study." Health Psychol Open 5(1): 2055102917753706.

Delaney LJ, C. M., Huang HC, Litton E, Wibrow B, Lopez V, Haren FV (2018). "Investigating the application of motion accelerometers as a sleep monitoring technique and the clinical burden of the intensive care environment on sleep quality: study protocol for a prospective observational study in Australia." BMJ Open.

Aubron C, Kandane-Rathnayake RK, Andrianopoulos N, Westbrook A, Engelbrecht S, Ozolins I, Bailey M, Murray L, Cooper DJ, Wood EM, McQuilten ZK, Blood Observational Study i, Group ACT. Day or overnight transfusion in critically ill patients: does it matter? Vox Sang 2018; 113: 275-282.

Australian TIobot, New Zealand Intensive Care Society Clinical Trials G. Study protocol for the Augmented versus Routine Approach to Giving Energy Trial (TARGET). Critical care and resuscitation : journal of the Australasian Academy of Critical Care Medicine 2018; 20: 6-14.

Australian TIobot, New Zealand Intensive Care Society Clinical Trials G. Statistical analysis plan for the Augmented versus Routine Approach to Giving Energy Trial (TARGET). Critical care and resuscitation : journal of the Australasian Academy of Critical Care Medicine 2018; 20: 15-21.

Bissett, B., I. A. Leditschke, M. Green, V. Marzano, S. Collins and F. Van Haren (2018). "Inspiratory muscle training for intensive care patients: A multidisciplinary practical guide for clinicians." Australian Critical Care 11: 11.

Brock, C., V. Marzano, M. Green, J. Wang, T. Neeman, I. Mitchell and B. Bissett (2018). "Defining new barriers to mobilisation in a highly active intensive care unit - have we found the ceiling? An observational study." Heart Lung.

Byrne L, Obonyo NG, Diab S, Dunster K, Passmore M, Boon AC, Hoe LS, Hay K, Van Haren F, Tung JP, Cullen L, Shekar K, Maitland K, Fraser JF. An Ovine Model of Hyperdynamic Endotoxemia and Vital Organ Metabolism. Shock 2018; 49: 99-107.

Byrne L, Obonyo NG, Diab SD, Dunster KR, Passmore MR, Boon AC, See Hoe L, Pedersen S, Hashairi Fauzi M, Pretti Pimenta L, Van Haren F, Anstey CM, Cullen L, Tung JP, Shekar K, Maitland K, Fraser JF. Unintended Consequences; Fluid Resuscitation Worsens Shock in an Ovine Model of Endotoxemia. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2018.

Cortegiani A, Madotto F, Gregoretti C, Bellani G, Laffey JG, Pham T, Van Haren F, Giarratano A, Antonelli M, Pesenti A, Grasselli G, Investigators LS, the ETG. Immunocompromised patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome: secondary analysis of the LUNG SAFE database. Critical care 2018; 22: 157.

Delaney, L. J., M. J. Currie, H. C. Huang, V. Lopez and F. Van Haren (2018). ""They can rest at home": an observational study of patients' quality of sleep in an Australian hospital." BMC Health Serv Res 18(1): 524.

Delaney, L. J., R. Bellomo and F. van Haren (2018). "Responsiveness of Noninvasive Continuous Cardiac Output Monitoring During the Valsalva Maneuver." Clin Nurs Res: 1054773818762878.

Dicks, S. G., K. Ranse, H. Northam, F. M. van Haren and D. P. Boer (2018). "An exploration of the relationship between families of deceased organ donors and transplant recipients: A systematic review and qualitative synthesis." Health Psychol Open 1(1): 10.1177/2055102918782172

Hoffman KR, L. B., Mitchell I, Van Haren F. (2018). "Discrepancy between factors associated with long-term outcome in very old patients referred to the intensive care unit, and the prevalence of treatment limitations." Anaesthesia and intensive care 46: 344-346.

Kengen, R., Daveson, K., Loong, B., Rodgers, H., Beckingham, W., Kennedy, K., Suwandarathne, R., van Haren, F. (2018). "Chlorhexidine washing in intensive care does not reduce bloodstream infections, blood culture contamination and drug-resistance microorganism acquisition: an interrupted time series analysis." Crit Care 20(3).

Laffey JG, Bellani G, Pham T, Fan E, Madotto F, Bajwa EK, Brochard L, Clarkson K, Esteban A, Gattinoni L, van Haren F, Heunks LM, Kurahashi K, Laake JH, Larsson A, McAuley DF, McNamee L, Nin N, Qiu H, Ranieri M, Rubenfeld GD, Thompson BT, Wrigge H, Slutsky AS, Pesenti A, Investigators LS, Group ET. Correction to: Potentially modifiable factors contributing to outcome from acute respiratory distress syndrome: the LUNG SAFE study. Intensive care medicine 2018; 44: 157-165.

Litton, E., McCann, M. and van Haren, F (2018). “Predicting Intensive Care Unit Length of Stay After Cardiac Surgery.” Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia.

Madotto F, P. T., Bellani G, Bos LD, Simonis FD, Fan E, Artigas A, Brochard L, Schultz MJ, Laffey JG, Investigators LS, the ETG. (2018). "Resolved versus confirmed ARDS after 24 h: insights from the LUNG SAFE study." Intensive Care Medicine.

Rebel, A., V. Marzano, M. Green, K. Johnston, J. Wang, T. Neeman, I. Mitchell and B. Bissett (2018). "Mobilisation is feasible in intensive care patients receiving vasoactive therapy: An observational study." Aust Crit Care.

The TARGET Investiators (2018). “Energy-Dense versus Routine Enteral Nutrition in the Critically Ill.” NEJM. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1811687

Vorona, S., U. Sabatini, S. Al-Maqbali, M. Bertoni, M. Dres, B. Bissett, F. Van Haren, A. D. Martin, C. Urrea, D. Brace, M. Parotto, M. S. Herridge, N. K. J. Adhikari, E. Fan, L. T. Melo, W. D. Reid, L. J. Brochard, N. D. Ferguson and E. C. Goligher (2018). "Inspiratory Muscle Rehabilitation in Critically Ill Adults. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis." Ann Am Thorac Soc 15(6): 735-744.

Wassenaar, A., L. Schoonhoven, J. W. Devlin, F. M. P. van Haren, A. J. C. Slooter, P. G. Jorens, M. van der Jagt, K. S. Simons, I. Egerod, L. D. Burry, A. Beishuizen, J. Matos, A. R. T. Donders, P. Pickkers and M. van den Boogaard (2018). "Delirium prediction in the intensive care unit: comparison of two delirium prediction models." Crit Care 22(1): 114.

Young, P. J., M. J. Bailey, R. W. Beasley, R. C. Freebairn, N. E. Hammond, F. M. van Haren, M. L. Harward, S. J. Henderson, D. M. Mackle, C. J. McArthur, S. P. McGuinness, J. A. Myburgh, M. K. Saxena, A. Turner, S. A. Webb and R. Bellomo (2017). "Protocol and statistical analysis plan for the Randomised Evaluation of Active Control of Temperature versus Ordinary Temperature Management (REACTOR) trial." Crit Care Resusc 19(1): 81-87.

Vellinga, N. A. R., E. C. Boerma, M. Koopmans, A. Donati, A. Dubin, N. I. Shapiro, R. M. Pearse, P. H. J. van der Voort, A. M. Dondorp, T. Bafi, M. Fries, T. Akarsu-Ayazoglu, A. Pranskunas, S. Hollenberg, G. Balestra, M. van Iterson, F. Sadaka, G. Minto, U. Aypar, F. J. Hurtado, G. Martinelli, D. Payen, F. van Haren, A. Holley, H. Gomez, R. L. Mehta, A. H. Rodriguez, C. Ruiz, H. S. Canales, J. Duranteau, P. E. Spronk, S. Jhanji, S. Hubble, M. Chierego, C. Jung, D. Martin, C. Sorbara, J. Bakker, C. Ince and S. s. g. micro (2017). "Mildly elevated lactate levels are associated with microcirculatory flow abnormalities and increased mortality: a microSOAP post hoc analysis." Crit Care 21(1): 255.

van Haren, F. Velloza, P. Chan, S. Mews, P. Lueck CJ. (2017). “Induced Hypertension for Preventing Complications of Delayed Cerebral Ischaemia in Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Haemorrhage (Protocol).” Cochrane Database Syst Rev (11) : 1-9.

van Haren, F. M. P. (2017). "A Chamber With a View: The Size of the Right Ventricle During Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation." Critical Care Medicine 45(7): 1258-1260.

van Haren, F. (2017). "Personalised fluid resuscitation in the ICU: still a fluid concept?" Crit Care 21(Suppl 3): 313.

Marini, J. J., D. De Backer, C. Ince, M. Singer, F. Van Haren, M. Westphal and P. Wischmeyer (2017). "Seven unconfirmed ideas to improve future ICU practice." Crit Care 21(Suppl 3): 315.

Laffey, J. G., F. Madotto, G. Bellani, T. Pham, E. Fan, L. Brochard, P. Amin, Y. Arabi, E. K. Bajwa, A. Bruhn, V. Cerny, K. Clarkson, L. Heunks, K. Kurahashi, J. H. Laake, J. A. Lorente, L. McNamee, N. Nin, J. E. Palo, L. Piquilloud, H. Qiu, J. I. S. Jiménez, A. Esteban, D. F. McAuley, F. van Haren, M. Ranieri, G. Rubenfeld, H. Wrigge, A. S. Slutsky and A. Pesenti (2017). "Geo-economic variations in epidemiology, patterns of care, and outcomes in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome: insights from the LUNG SAFE prospective cohort study." The Lancet Respiratory Medicine 5(8): 627-638.

Khanna, A., S. W. English, X. S. Wang, K. Ham, J. Tumlin, H. Szerlip, L. W. Busse, L. Altaweel, T. E. Albertson, C. Mackey, M. T. McCurdy, D. W. Boldt, S. Chock, P. J. Young, K. Krell, R. G. Wunderink, M. Ostermann, R. Murugan, M. N. Gong, R. Panwar, J. Hastbacka, R. Favory, B. Venkatesh, B. T. Thompson, R. Bellomo, J. Jensen, S. Kroll, L. S. Chawla, G. F. Tidmarsh, A. M. Deane and A.-. Investigators (2017). "Angiotensin II for the Treatment of Vasodilatory Shock." N Engl J Med.

Kecskes, Z. and I. Mitchell (2017). "Introducing a new series on innovations in medical education." Med J Aust 206(1): 13.

Holloway, J. Cuningham, J. and F. van Haren (2017). “DonateLife ACT and the Impact of the National Reform Programme.” Transplant Journal of Australasia 26(2): 4-5.

Edelman, J., M. K. Wilson, M. P. Vallely, P. G. Bannon, G. McKay, S. J. Robertson, R. Hislop, C. Wong, B. L. Cartwright, P. Forrest and P. J. Torzillo (2017). "The expanding role of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation retrieval services in Australia." Anaesth Intensive Care 45(1): 92-93.

Dicks, S. G., K. Ranse, H. Northam, D. P. Boer and F. M. van Haren (2017). "The development of a narrative describing the bereavement of families of potential organ donors: A systematic review." Health Psychol Open 4(2): 2055102917742918.

Dicks, S. G., K. Ranse, F. M. v. Haren and D. P. Boer (2017). "In-hospital experiences of families of potential organ donors: A systematic review and qualitative synthesis." Health Psychology Open 4(1): 2055102917709375.

Delaney, L. J., M. J. Currie, H.-C. C. Huang, V. Lopez, E. Litton and F. Van Haren (2017). "The nocturnal acoustical intensity of the intensive care environment: an observational study." Journal of Intensive Care 5(1): 41.

Byrne, L., N. G. Obonyo, S. Diab, K. Dunster, M. Passmore, A. C. Boon, L. S. Hoe, K. Hay, F. Van Haren, J. P. Tung, L. Cullen, K. Shekar, K. Maitland and J. F. Fraser (2017). "An Ovine Model of Hyperdynamic Endotoxemia and Vital Organ Metabolism." Shock.

Byrne, L. and F. Van Haren (2017). "Fluid resuscitation in human sepsis: Time to rewrite history?" Ann Intensive Care 7(1): 4.

Bulic, D., M. Bennett, H. Rodgers, M. Nourse, P. Rubie, J. C. Looi and F. Van Haren (2017). "Delirium After Mechanical Ventilation in Intensive Care Units: The Cognitive and Psychosocial Assessment (CAPA) Study Protocol." JMIR Res Protoc 6(2): e31.

Bellani, G., J. G. Laffey, T. Pham, F. Madotto, E. Fan, L. Brochard, A. Esteban, L. Gattinoni, V. Bumbasirevic, L. Piquilloud, F. van Haren, A. Larsson, D. F. McAuley, P. R. Bauer, Y. M. Arabi, M. Ranieri, M. Antonelli, G. D. Rubenfeld, B. T. Thompson and H. Wrigge (2017). "Noninvasive Ventilation of Patients with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome. Insights from the LUNG SAFE Study." American Journal of Respiratory & Critical Care Medicine 195(1): 67-77.

Reid, D. B., L. S. Chapple, S. N. O'Connor, R. Bellomo, H. Buhr, M. J. Chapman, A. R. Davies, G. M. Eastwood, S. Ferrie, K. Lange, J. McIntyre, D. M. Needham, S. L. Peake, S. Rai, E. J. Ridley, H. Rodgers and A. M. Deane (2016). "The effect of augmenting early nutritional energy delivery on quality of life and employment status one year after ICU admission." Anaesthesia & Intensive Care 44(3): 406-412.

Reade, M. C., G. M. Eastwood, R. Bellomo, M. Bailey, A. Bersten, B. Cheung, A. Davies, A. Delaney, A. Ghosh, F. van Haren, N. Harley, D. Knight, S. McGuiness, J. Mulder, S. O'Donoghue, N. Simpson and P. Young (2016). "Effect of Dexmedetomidine Added to Standard Care on Ventilator-Free Time in Patients With Agitated Delirium: A Randomized Clinical Trial." JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association 315(14): 1460-1468.

Montana-Hoyos C., T. S., Bikshandi B., Fenwick B., Stehlik H., van Haren F. (2016). "User-centered, Research-based Design of Futuristic Intensive Care Units." International Journal of Architectonic, Spatial, and Environmental Design 10(3).

Mitchell, I., A. Schuster, K. Smith, P. Pronovost and A. Wu (2016). "Patient safety incident reporting: a qualitative study of thoughts and perceptions of experts 15 years after 'To Err is Human'." BMJ Qual Saf 25(2): 92-99.

Laffey, J. G., G. Bellani, T. Pham, E. Fan, F. Madotto, E. K. Bajwa, L. Brochard, K. Clarkson, A. Esteban, L. Gattinoni, F. van Haren, L. M. Heunks, K. Kurahashi, J. H. Laake, A. Larsson, D. F. McAuley, L. McNamee, N. Nin, H. Qiu, M. Ranieri, G. D. Rubenfeld, B. T. Thompson, H. Wrigge, A. S. Slutsky and A. Pesenti (2016). "Potentially modifiable factors contributing to outcome from acute respiratory distress syndrome: the LUNG SAFE study." Intensive Care Med 42(12): 1865-1876.

Kerr, A., J. T. McVey, A. M. Wood, F. M. P. Van Haren and F. Van Haren (2016). "Safety of nicotine replacement therapy in critically ill smokers: a retrospective cohort study." Anaesthesia & Intensive Care 44(6): 758-761.

Hoffman, K. R., B. Loong and F. V. Haren (2016). "Very old patients urgently referred to the intensive care unit: long-term outcomes for admitted and declined patients." Crit Care Resusc 18(3): 157-164.

Green, M., V. Marzano, I. A. Leditschke, I. Mitchell and B. Bissett (2016). "Mobilization of intensive care patients: a multidisciplinary practical guide for clinicians." J Multidiscip Healthc 9: 247-256.

Cardona-Morrell, M., J. Kim, R. M. Turner, M. Anstey, I. A. Mitchell and K. Hillman (2016). "Non-beneficial treatments in hospital at the end of life: a systematic review on extent of the problem." Int J Qual Health Care 28(4): 456-469.

Bissett, B., M. Green, V. Marzano, S. Byrne, I. A. Leditschke, T. Neeman, R. Boots and J. Paratz (2016). "Reliability and utility of the Acute Care Index of Function in intensive care patients: An observational study." Heart Lung 45(1): 10-14.

Bissett, B. M., I. A. Leditschke, T. Neeman, R. Boots and J. Paratz (2016). "Inspiratory muscle training to enhance recovery from mechanical ventilation: a randomised trial." Thorax 71(9): 812-819.

Bellani, G., J. G. Laffey, P. Tài, E. Fan, L. Brochard, A. Esteban, L. Gattinoni, A. Larsson, D. F. McAuley, M. Ranieri, G. Rubenfeld, B. T. Thompson, F. Wrigge, A. S. Slutsky, A. Pesenti, T. Pham, F. van Haren, H. Wrigge, L. S. Investigators and E. T. G. the (2016). "Epidemiology, Patterns of Care, and Mortality for Patients With Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Intensive Care Units in 50 Countries." JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association 315(8): 788-800.

Young, P., M. Saxena, R. Bellomo, R. Freebairn, N. Hammond, F. van Haren, M. Holliday, S. Henderson, D. Mackle, C. McArthur, S. McGuinness, J. Myburgh, M. Weatherall, S. Webb and R. Beasley (2015). "Acetaminophen for Fever in Critically Ill Patients with Suspected Infection." New England Journal of Medicine 373(23): 2215-2224.

Wassenaar, A., M. van den Boogaard, T. van Achterberg, A. J. C. Slooter, M. A. Kuiper, M. E. Hoogendoorn, K. S. Simons, E. Maseda, N. Pinto, C. Jones, A. Luetz, A. Schandl, W. Verbrugghe, L. M. Aitken, F. M. P. van Haren, A. R. T. Donders, L. Schoonhoven and P. Pickkers (2015). "Multinational development and validation of an early prediction model for delirium in ICU patients." Intensive Care Medicine 41(6): 1048-1056.

van Haren, F., J. Cohen, A. McKee, I. Mitchell, M. Pinder and I. Seppelt (2015). "Infection control in times of Ebola: how well are we training the next generation of intensivists in Australia and New Zealand?" Crit Care Resusc 17(2): 65-66.

van Haren F.M.P., S. J., Cursons J., Cursons R.T.M., Jameson M. (2015). "Preliminary report of a novel model using human umbilical vein endothelium in whole umbilical cord preparations to examine the in vitro effects of lipopolysaccharide and hypertonic saline on the gene expression of inflammatory mediators." Anaesthesia and Intensive Care 43(2).

Leech, M., B. Bissett, M. Kot and G. Ntoumenopoulos (2015). "Physiotherapist-initiated lung ultrasound to improve intensive care management of a deteriorating patient and prevent intubation: a case report." Physiother Theory Pract 31(5): 372-376.

Leech, M., B. Bissett, M. Kot and G. Ntoumenopoulos (2015). "Lung ultrasound for critical care physiotherapists: a narrative review." Physiother Res Int 20(2): 69-76.

Leditshke, I. A., T. Crispin and J. Bestic (2015). "Advance care directives in residential aged care." AFP 44(4): 186-190.

Jones, D., P. Hicks, J. Currey, J. Holmes, G. J. Fennessy, K. Hillman, A. Psirides, S. Rai, M. Y. Singh, D. V. Pilcher, D. Bhonagiri, G. K. Hart and E. Fugaccia (2015). "Findings of the first ANZICS conference on the role of intensive care in Rapid Response Teams." Anaesth Intensive Care 43(3): 369-379.

Hoffman, K. R., S. W. Chan, A. R. Hughes and S. J. Halcrow (2015). "Management of Cerebellar Tonsillar Herniation following Lumbar Puncture in Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension." Case Rep Crit Care 2015: 895035.

Hargreaves, D. S., F. Greaves, C. Levay, I. Mitchell, U. Koch, T. Esch, S. Denny, J. C. Frich, J. Struijs and A. Sheikh (2015). "Comparison of Health Care Experience and Access Between Young and Older Adults in 11 High-Income Countries." J Adolesc Health 57(4): 413-420.

Finfer, S., D. Chittock, Y. Li, D. Foster, V. Dhingra, R. Bellomo, D. Cook, P. Dodek, P. Hebert, W. Henderson, D. Heyland, A. Higgins, C. McArthur, I. Mitchell, J. Myburgh, B. Robinson and J. Ronco (2015). "Intensive versus conventional glucose control in critically ill patients with traumatic brain injury: long-term follow-up of a subgroup of patients from the NICE-SUGAR study." Intensive Care Med 41(6): 1037-1047.

Dulhunty, J. M., J. A. Roberts, J. S. Davis, S. A. Webb, R. Bellomo, C. Gomersall, C. Shirwadkar, G. M. Eastwood, J. Myburgh, D. L. Paterson, T. Starr, S. K. Paul and J. Lipman (2015). "A Multicenter Randomized Trial of Continuous versus Intermittent beta-Lactam Infusion in Severe Sepsis." Am J Respir Crit Care Med 192(11): 1298-1305.

Delaney, L. v. H., Frank; Currie, Marian; Huang, Hsin-Chia Carol; Lopez, Violeta (2015). "Sleep Monitoring Techniques within Intensive Care." International Journal of Nursing and Clinical Practices 2(1).

Delaney, L. J., F. Van Haren and V. Lopez (2015). "Sleeping on a problem: the impact of sleep disturbance on intensive care patients - a clinical review." Ann Intensive Care 5: 3.

Bulic, D. B., M; Shehabi, Y (2015). "Delirium in the intensive care unit and long–term cognitive and psychosocial functioning: literature review." Australian Journal of Advanced Nursing 33(1): 44-52.

Bissett, B., I. A. Leditschke, T. Neeman, R. Boots and J. Paratz (2015). "Weaned but weary: one third of adult intensive care patients mechanically ventilated for 7 days or more have impaired inspiratory muscle endurance after successful weaning." Heart Lung 44(1): 15-20.